Institute for Theoretical Physics and Modeling

Տեսական Ֆիզիկայի և Մոդելավորման Ինստիտուտ


Notable New References

T2K Collaboration, "Scintillator aging of the T2K near detectors from 2010 to 2021", arXiv:2207.12982 M. Bauer & J. Shergold, "Limits on the cosmic neutrino background", arXiv:2207.12413 E. di Valentino et al., "Model marginalized constraints on neutrino properties from cosmology", arXiv:2207.05167. m1+m2+m3 < 87 meV MicroBooNE, "Search for (heavy leptons)", arXiv:2207.03840 G. Quinta et al., "Predicting leptonic CP violation via minimization of neutrino entanglement", arXiv:2207.03303, sin(dCP) ~ e-3 D. Forero et al., "Large Extra Dimensions and nu experiments", arXiv:2207.02790 I. Tanseri et al., "Updated m(nu) constraints from galaxy clustering and CMB lensing-galaxy correlation", arXiv:2207.01913 NOvA collaboration, "The Profiled Feldman-Cousins technique for confidence interval construction in the presence of nuisance parameters", arXiv:2207.14353 Y. Cui et al., "Shining Light on Cosmogenic Axions with Neutrino Experiments", arXiv:2207.13107 A. Lichkunov et al., "Three-flavor neutrino oscillations in a magnetic field", arXiv:2207.12285 D. Raikwal et al., "Determining Neutrino Mass Ordering with ICAL, JUNO and T2HK." arXiv:2207.06798; also see arXiv:2207.04784

Neutrino Jobs Updates - 20 new jobs listed for July -- last additions in red.

Neutrino Snow-White v4
"A Call to Arms Control: Synergies between Nonproliferation Applications of Nu Detectors & Large-Scale Fundamental Neutrino Physics Experiments", arXiv:2203.00042, Synergies include prototype Gd-doped water-based and opaque scintillator test-beds, large area fast position-sensitive PMTs, and the development of concepts for underground kT-scale detectors for reactor monitoring. "Design Considerations for Fermilab Multi-MW Proton Facility in the DUNE/LBNF era", arXiv:2203.08276, 2 other whitepapers describe a 2.4~MW upgrade for DUNE/LBNF featuring a 2 GeV extension of the PIP-II linac and a new rapid-cycling-synchrotron. This compares them, emphasizing the commonalities and tracing the differences to their original design questions. > "KATRIN: Status and Prospects for the Neutrino Mass and Beyond", arXiv:2203.08059, After 1000 days of data-taking, KATRIN's design sensitivity is 200 meV at the 90% confidence level. This paper describes R&D to improve sensitivity, and other KATRIN goals. "DUNE Software & High Performance Computing", arXiv:2203.06104, Existing software execution models require adaptation, similar to other experiments in some ways, but in other ways unique to DUNE. "The European Spallation Source nu Superbeam", arXiv:2203.08803, This summarizes the design of the 5 MW ESSvSB experiment and its synergies with nuSTORM and the Muon Collider.

2022 version of Particle Properties from the PDG

The Particle Data Group's 2022 version of the Review of particle properties can be found at . Values can be found in pdglive at . The best fits for all 5 neutrino oscillation parameters are unchanged from 2021.

TRIDENT, a neutrino telescope proposed in the South China Sea

A detector near the equator would give a unique viewpoint of the neutrino sky. A site has been found above an abyssal plain at a depth of 3.5 km. The tRopIcal DEep-sea Neutrino Telescope is described at arXiv:2207.04519.

Submarine Navigation with neutrinos

J. Prieto et al. in arXiv:2207.09231 consider using a CEvNS detector in submarines for neutrino Position, Navigation and Timing. They conclude that this application is in the limit of being feasible, but could be realized after some reasonable progress in source and neutrino detector technology.

Long building at Argonne
Secretary of Energy Jennifer Granholm came to ANL to dedicate the new Long Beamline Building at the photon source. Note that there is no hyphen, since both the beamline & building are long. A hyphen is needed in the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility and Short-Baseline Neutrino Program since the neutrino, facility & program aren't long/short.

Return of NuINT 24-29 October in Seoul Korea

Return of NNN 28-30 September 2022 in Hida Japan This is the 13th International Workshop on Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions in the Few GeV Regions.

Community Summer Study plans future of US HEP

Return of NNN 28-30 September 2022 in Hida Japan .The 21st workshop aims to discuss future detectors for nu physics & nucleon decays.

DUNE passes important hurdle

In July, the LBNF/DUNE-US Project completed the CD-1RR review with the very positive recommendation that the DOE should proceed to request the formal step of CD-1RR approval. There are a number of good recommendations to prepare the project for the further approval steps at CD-2 and CD-3.

Community Summer Study plans future of US HEP

The 2021/2022 "Snowmass" meeting took place in July. See slides at: The goal of the 2-y long process is to identify the most important questions in HEP and the tools and infrastructure required to address them. At the meeting, all frontiers converged on executive summaries representing the views of their communities and provided input needed for P5. In September a draft overall executive summary should be available and in Oct/Nov an ~500 page Snowmass Book will be finalized & ready for submission. The Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel, a sub-panel of HEPAP, will produce a strategic report for HEP by summer 2023.

Long-Baseline Neutrino News July 2022

Notable New References

J. Tena-Vidal et al., "Neutrino nucleus CC0pi cross section tuning in GENIE v3", arXiv:2206.11050 NOvA collaboration, "Measurement of the nue-Nucleus CC Cross Section at 2.4 GeV using NOvA", arXiv:2206.10585 CUPID collab, "First results 82Se with CUPID", arXiv:2206.5130 P. Bakhti et al, "NSI of atmo nus in future", arXiv:2206.02594 Super-K collab, "Search for supernova bursts in SK-IV", arXiv:2206.01380 A. Alekou et al., "ESS-nu Superbeam CDR", arXiv:2206.01208 T. Bringmann et al., "A new life for sterile neutrino dark matter after the pandemic", arXiv:2206.10630

Neutrino Jobs Updates - 13 new jobs listed for June

Neutrino Snow-White v3

"DUNE Physics Summary", arXiv:2203.06100, This summarizes the neutrino parameter measurements, astroparticle physics program and Beyond Standard Model Searches for DUNE. It calls on the Snowmass process to affirm the realization of Phase I within the current decade, Phase II upgrades in the next decade, and R&D for beam upgrades and additional detector capabilities. "Light Sterile Neutrino Searches and Related Phenomenology", arXiv:2203.07323, This 210 page document is an encyclopedic reference concerning experimental neutrino anomalies that remain unresolved. Essential thrusts are 1) all anomalies; 2) diverse signatures, 3) theory input, 4) share data, & 5) robust analyses. "High-Energy and Ultra-High-Energy Neutrinos", arXiv:2203.08096, These nus probe fundamental physics from the TeV scale to the EeV scale and beyond. This describes the opportunities astrophysical neutrino observations offer for astrophysics and high-energy physics, today and in coming years. "Enhanced NeUtrino BEams from kaon Tagging (ENUBET)", arXiv:2203.08319, The absolute normalization of the flux in a monitored neutrino beam can be constrained at the 1% level. It summarizes ENUBET design, physics performance and opportunities for its implementation in a timescale comparable with DUNE. "Future Advances in Photon-Based Neutrino Detectors", arXiv:2203.07479, This considers enabling technologies for future photon-based neutrino detectors such as slow flours, water-based liquid scintillator, and spectral sorting of photons. It covers novel ideas, such as THEIA, LiquidO, SLiPS and ArTEMIS.

Fermilab Users Meeting in June reviews FNAL neutrino program


Another Neutrino Day 9 July 2022 in South Dakota

NNN 2022 meeting to be held in Japan 28-30 September It will be in person, but if COVID conditions change, it will be held virtually & not postponed. If you were at NNN 2002, your picture may be at

Update from NOvA

NOvA showed a new analysis technique for its oscillation results, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo Bayesian Analysis, which allows the results to be scrutinized in new ways. The conclusions about oscillation parameters are the same as the frequentist results. A new sterile nu search included numu events, a wider dm^2 range, dedicated systematics and a covariance matrix fit to 3+1. No sterile signal was seen & a competitive limit on theta_24 was set.

ICARUS starts taking neutrino data

The ICARUS detector, now at Fermilab, has been operating in the Booster Neutrino Beam since February 2020. The top Cosmic Ray Tracker has been included since February 2022. Commissioning concluded at the end of May 2022 & physics data began 7 Jun, after the completion of the 3 m of concrete overburden. That addition reduced the cosmic rate in the top CRT from 600 Hz to 330 Hz.

SBND detector finished

The TPC for the Short-Baseline Neutrino Detector was completed and closed on 13 June. Together with ICARUS (see below), and the completed MicroBooNE experiment, they compose the Short-Baseline Program at Fermilab to try to understand the MiniBooNE anomaly.

Some new things heard at Neutrino 2022 (by speaker)

(Park) The JSNS2 experiment has its first clear kaon decay at rest signal, which it will use to check LSND; (Elliot) BEST reaffirms the Ga anomaly, but saw no dependence on oscillation length; (Gando) KamLAND Zen limits on 0nu2beta decay; (Schonert) War means no Russian 2beta decay isotopes for western countries; (Luk) Daya Bay has improved oscillation parameters; (Vogel) New 235U results essentially explain the previous reactor neutrino anomaly; (Vagins) In June Super-K started adding more Gadolinium, to triple from 0.01% to 0.03% on the way to 0.1% goal; (Caccianiga) Borexino new results on CNO neutrinos; (Bronner) T2K showed reanalysis of the data used for Neutrino 2020, with significant improvements for it all; (All) And, as they say on TV, much more.

Neutrino 2022 slides and videos now available to everyone

Of particular interest are Wang and Pascoli's outlook talks: Wang Pascoli

Long-Baseline Neutrino News - June 2022

Notable New References
A. Bonhomme et al., "Safe liquid Scintillators for large scale detectors", arXiv:2205.15046
COHERENT collaboration, "A COHERENT constraint on leptophobic dark matter using CsI data", arXiv:2205.12414
F. Suekane et al., "Conceptual Design Report of DaRveX: Decay at Rest nue + Pb Cross Section at J-PARC MLF", arXiv:2205.11769
Super-K Collaboration, "Pre-Supernova Alert System for Super-Kamiokande", arXiv:2205.09881
JUNO Collaboration, "Prospects for Detecting the Diffuse Supernova neutrino background with JUNO", arXiv:2205.08830
MicroBooNE collaboration, "Measurement of the NC one-pizero production on argon with MicroBooNE detector", arXiv:2205.07943
J. Isaacson et al., "ACHILLES: A novel event generator for electron- and neutrino-nucleus scattering", arXiv:2205.06378
S. Sahoo et al., "Core-passing atmo nus: a unique probe to discriminate between Lorentz violation and NSI", arXiv:2205.05134
A. de Gouvea et al., "The diffuse supernova nu background as a probe of late-time neutrino mass generation", arXiv:2205.01102
C. Schwartz, "A Consistent Theory of Tachyons with Interesting Physics of Neutrinos", arXiv:2205.03227

Neutrino Snow-White v2

"Coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering: Terrestrial and astrophysical applications", arXiv:2203.07361 This discusses the neutrino sources that can be used to detect CEνNS, beyond Standard Model searches and on-going and future experiments. "The Physics Case for a Neutrino Factory", arXiv:2203.08094 Given its unique beam characteristics, it could new nu states, light dark matter, lepton-flavor universality violation, etc. The ability to study nu energies in the range of ~tens of GeV opens the possibility for nutau physics and charm production. "SoLAr: Solar Neutrinos in Liquid Argon", arXiv:2203.07501 The goal of SoLAr is to observe solar neutrinos in a 10 ton detector & demonstrate the required background suppression and E resolution. It will lead to precision on flux measurements and nu mixing parameters, and ultimately observation of hep neutrinos. "Japan’s Strategy for Future Projects in High Energy Physics", arXiv:2203.13979 Besides a linear collider, Hyper-Kamiokande is currently under construction to study CP symmetry in the lepton sector as well as nucleon decays. In the meantime searches for CP violation will continue with T2K and upgrades of the J-PARC beams. "Physics Opportunities with PROSPECT-II", arXiv:2202.12343 Focusing on the future use of reactor neutrinos for BSM physics, good spectral measurements have a role. Recent results have confused the landscape. PROSPECT-II features an evolutionary design which can be constructed and deployed within a year.

Neutrino Day this year will be 9 July 2022

This occurs in Lead South Dakota, and they can always use volunteers.

And in May, the Davis Campus at Sanford Underground Research Facility was recognized for its contributions to the advancement of physics.

Tom Gaisser 1941-2022

Delaware theorist Thomas K Gaisser played an important role in the discovery of neutrino oscillations by providing one of the flux calculations for atmospheric neutrinos seen by IMB, Kamiokande, Soudan 2 and Frejus. He has recently been an active member of the IceCube collaboration including spokesperson.

Elaine McCluskey, LBNF Project Manager, announces retirement

Her management work on neutrino experiments, recently as project manager for LBNF, has helped turn Fermilab into a neutrino lab. A focus on her career can be found at

Fiscal Year 2023 US LBNF/DUNE budget request

Funding for LBNF/DUNE in FY22 rises slowly, $173M to $189M & $180M in 2023. That aligns with a “conservative” funding profile floated by the DOE last year to address ballooning costs as well as the need to fund LHC upgrades. DOE is currently using an estimate of $3B for the overall cost, with international contributions valued at $660M more. Firm costs will come in 2023 at the earliest.

Francesco Lanni chosen to lead Neutrino Platform at CERN

His goal is to help shape the long-term perspective for neutrino physics at CERN. Current activities include protoDUNE, proof of principle for vertical drift, and making 2 cryostats forLBNF/DUNE.

Neutrino Physicist interviewed about Russia's Ukraine invasion

DESY's Christian Spiering, who has worked at Lake Baikal and initiated the Global Neutrino Network, has collaborated with Russian researchers for almost fifty years. Here he discusses his thoughts on the effects on research due to their Ukraine war.

Neutrino 2072 preview

Neutrino 2022 started with a look back at Neutrino 1972 by Chris Quigg and included a look forward to the possible highlights of Neutrino 2072. A few were: "The study of leptonic CP violation will take on a life of its own; the connection to leptogenesis remains psychological", "Large-scale experiments will hint that some neutrinos decay", and "Detection of cosmogenic neutrinos will fix birth of the first stars".


Long-Baseline Neutrino News - May 2022

Notable New References
JUNO collaboration, "Sub-percent Precision (Sensitivity) of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters with JUNO", arXiv:2204.13249
S. Chulia et al, "Absolute neutrino mass scale and dark matter stability from flavor symmetry", arXiv:2204.12517
KamLAND collaboration, "Search for supernova neutrinos & constraint on the galactic star formation rate", arXiv:2204.12065
A. Das et al., "Neutrino secret self-interactions: a booster shot for the cosmic neutrino background", arXiv:2204.11885
T. Yang et al., "The physics case for a neutrino lepton collider in light of the CDF W mass measurement", arXiv:2204.11871
A. de Gouvea et al., "Very Light Sterile Neutrinos at NOvA and T2K", arXiv:2204.09130
Borexino collaboration, "Independent determination of the Earth's orbital parameters with solar neutrinos in Borexino", arXiv:2204.07029,
D. Chattopadhyay et al., "Analytic treatment of 3-flavor neutrino oscillation and decay in matter", arXiv:2204.05803
T. Cheng et al., "Microscopic and Macroscopic Effects in the Decoherence of Neutrino Oscillations", arXiv:2204.10696
E. Lisi & A. Marone, "Majorana neutrino mass constraints in the landscape of nuclear matrix elements", arXiv:2204.09569

Neutrino Jobs Updates - 8 new jobs listed for April

Neutrino Snow-White v1

"Hyper-Kamiokande Experiment", arXiv:2203.02029 This 260,000 ton detector has a fiducial volume 8.4 times larger than Super-K and a low energy threshold. It expects 3.8 Mton-y exposure over 20 years, measuring long-baseline neutrino oscillations, NDK, and atmospheric, solar, supernova and astrophysical neutrinos. 11pp "Neutrinos from Stored Muons (nuSTORM)", arXiv:2203.07545, NuSTORM is working on a 5-year program to develop a plan in which ENUBET & nuSTORM deliver the cross-section measurements identified by the European Study and allow BSM searches; and in which a 6D mu ionization cooling experiment is delivered. 37pp "Synergy between cosmological & lab neutrino physics searches" arXiv:2203.07377, New cosmological probes will give a precision neutrino energy density, but could also start probing other properties of the neutrino spectra. With results from terrestrial experiments, cosmology can probe new physics related to neutrinos. 54pp "Searches for Baryon Number Violation in Neutrino Experiments" arXiv:2203.08771, Large neutrino detectors seek to improve upon current nucleon decay limits and will cover a range of lifetimes predicted by several GUTs. This summarizes theoretical motivations and experimental aspects of future searches. 70pp "Software and Computing for Small HEP Experiments", arXiv:2203.07645. Small projects don't have small computing requirements. Summarizing the "Workshop on Software and Computing for Small High Energy Physics Experiments", this promotes the development and re-use of common tools and open-source software.

The cost of DUNE and CD1RR

At Fermilab Director Lia Merminga's first all-hands meeting, DUNE/LBNF was called the top priority, but not only priority.A review to reaffirm the project will be held this July. An explanation of costs can be found between 25:30 and 33:00 at this recording.

Trying to stay ahead of competition, U.S. pares down troubled $3 billion neutrino experiment

NOvA power record from NuMI on 26 April

NuMI hit a new power record with an average 1-hr power of 893 kW.

PIP II gets CD-3

Fermilab's proton 1.2 MW improvement plan (PIP-II) will produce more neutrinos for LBNF/DUNE. A study for 2.4 MW is starting now.

The return of the DONUT Experiment

The "Direct observation of the nu tau, (DONUT)" experiment ran in 1997 and discovered the interaction of the tau neutrino, using a beam dump experiment at Fermilab. Now, FNAL area scientists can design their own donuts at "The Donut Experiment" in Lombard IL.

LIDINE 2022, 21-23 September, Warsaw Poland

Abstracts open at NuFACT, Salt Lake City Utah, 31 July - 6 Aug

Snowmass Community Summer Study, 17-26 July, Seattle WA

Neutrino Day, 9 July 2022, SURF SD

Neutrino Physics, Quy Nhon Vietnam, 17-23 July

APPEC Town Meeting, 9-10 June, Berlin Germany

Neutrino 2022 in Seoul 30 May - 4 June watch party

The Fermilab Student & Postdoc Association (FSPA) had a survey for a group watch party for Neutrino 2022.

Check their website if they organize it.

Long-Baseline Neutrino News April 2022

Գիտության կոմիտե

ՀՀ կրթության, գիտության, մշակույթի և սպորտի նախարարություն Գիտության կոմիտեն հայտարարում է գիտական և գիտատեխնիկական գործունեության պայմանագրային (թեմատիկ) ֆինանսավորման նպատակով գիտական թեմաների հայտերի մրցույթի հրավեր:


Faculty position opening in neutrino physics at LSU

The Department of Physics and Astronomy at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge invites applications for a tenure-track, assistant professor in the area of experimental neutrino physics, starting August 2021.
Review of applications will begin December 15, 2020, and will continue until the position is filled.
More information on the position in the attached document and also at:

New round of scholarships to support Chinese postodcs for the stays in Germany

The CSC program provides opportunities for chinese graduate students and researchers to study in some of the best organisations all over the world.

Research Associate position

Research Associate position at Universität Hamburg on physics analysis and fast machine-learning based event selections for Dark Matter searches with SuperCDMS. Both Postdocs and PhD candidates are invited to apply.More information is available here:


Այսօր ( 22.05 2020 ) երեկոյան տեղի ունեցավ DUNE Collaboration կիսամյակի ժողովը: Քննարկվել էին պայմաններում ֆինանսական վիճակը: Մասնակցել էր գիտական տնօրեն Արա Իոաննիսյանը: Մանրամասները ավելի ուշ:


Հրաժարական է տվել ԲՈԿի ղեկավար Սմբաթ Գոգյանը(Պատճառը Արայիկ Հարությունյանի վարած քաղաքականությունը !!!


Մայիսի 20-ին ռեժիսորի համակողմանի հանդիպումն այժմ հասանելի է դիտելու համար ( մուտքի համար անհրաժեշտ է login): Տեսանյութը հասանելի կլինի ուրբաթ, մայիսի 29-ին: Սլայդերի տախտակը կարելի է մուտք գործել այստեղ կամ COVID-19- ի «Աշխատակիցների համար նախատեսված ռեսուրսներ» էջում `«Այլ ռեսուրսներ» բաժնում: The May 20 director all-hands meeting is now available for viewing (Services account login required). The video will be available through Friday, May 29. The slide deck from the meeting can be accessed here or at the COVID-19 Resources for Employees page in the Other Resources section (Services account login required).

Հրապարակված է աշխատանքային տարբերակը

"First results on ProtoDUNE-SP LArTPC performance from a test beam run at the CERN Neutrino Platform” Կարելի է կարդալ DUNE-docdb-17316, version #6 կամ լրիվ տարբերակը DUNE/ProtoDUNE հեղինակների ցուցակում `նկարագրված ուղեցույցների համաձայն DUNC-docdb-1115. Թաստաթուղթը կներկայացվի համագործակցության ժողովում ուրբաթ, մայիսի 15-ին, իսկ մեկնաբանության ժամանակահատվածը կփակվի ուրբաթ ՝ մայիսի 22-ին: Արաջարկություններ ներկայացնել Մարկ Մեսսյերին (

T2K CP studies appear in Nature

Details of T2K CP studies released in October (arXiv:1910.03887) using nus and antinus have been published in Nature and generated much publicity. A recent CERN seminar is at Constraint on the matter-antimatter symmetry-violating phase in neutrino oscillations by the T2K experiment

Postdoc Position

A new PhD offer in cosmology at Naples University has been posted at


Մամուլի շատ զեկույցներում քննարկվում է նյութի հակամենաշնորհային ասիմետրիան տիեզերքի և CP- ի խախտում: Neutrino ֆիզիկոսները դա տեղյակ են լեպտոգենեզը հիմնավոր կապ է ապահովում, բայց պատմությունը այդպես չէ ավարտվել է Մամուլի համար այդ պատմությունը թարգմանելիս `սխալ հայտարարություններ առատ են, ինչը հիմնականում նշանակություն չունի: Սադրիչ բլոգում ես էի հարվածել է նրանով, որ «քչերը հոգ են տանում nu ոլորտում CP- ի խախտման մասին»: կամ

FNAL- ում ճառագայթը անջատված է

Համաճարակի ժամանակ ավելի քիչ են նեյտրինոյի հետ կապված գործարույթները․ «Տանը աշխատելու» օրերին հիմնական լաբորատորիաները փակված են և ճառագայթները անջատված են: Օրինակ FNAL- ում ճառագայթը անջատված է ֆինանսական տարվա մնացած մասը: Բայց որոշ փորձեր իրենց պահպանում են դետեկտորները գնում են, ինչպիսիք են NOvA- ն գերբեռնվածության և տիեզերական ճառագայթների ուսումնասիրության համար:

Postdoc Position

A new offer of postdoctoral positions on gravitation and field theory at UNAM (Mexico City, Mexico) has been added to

Neutrino Day goes virtual 11 July 2020

Նեյտրինոյի օրը ուժի մեջ է, բայց վիրտուալ, հուլիսի 11-ին Սանֆորդի լաբորատորիայի ավանդույթ ՝ այս տարվա նեյտրինոյի օր. Մի հարց առեղծվածը վիրտուալ փորձ կլինի ՝ առցանց զրույցներով, ձեռքերով գործունեություն, խաղեր, արվեստի գործունեություն և գիտության կոմեդիան

ICARUS-ը կրկին լցվեց հեղուկ Արգոնով

ICARUS դետեկտորը, որը LNGS- ից Ֆերմիլաբ է եկել, մաս է կազմում կարճաժամկետ բազային nu ծրագիրը ՝ անսպասելի արդյունքներին հետևելու համար MiniBooNE- ից: Այն սկսեց հեղուկ Արգոնով լցվել փետրվարին և այժմ լի է 760 տոննա հեղուկ Արգոնով The ICARUS detector, which came to Fermilab from LNGS, is part of the short-baseline nu program to follow up on unexpected results from MiniBooNE. It started filling with liquid Argon in February and is now full with 760 tons of liquid Argon.

Neutrino Music by David Ibbet

In the “Particle of Doubt,” scored for soprano, violin, viola, cello, piano and electronics, you can almost hear an oscillation. and

Postdoc Position

Postdoc position at MPP Munich on “Data Analysis for the CRESST Experiment" More information is available here: